A European passport for crowdfunding

At last, a European passport for crowdfunding! As from 10 November 2021, it will be possible for both new and existing crowdfunding platforms to obtain a licence allowing them to carry out their activities in all EU countries. What does it mean in practice for SMEs, start-ups and potential investors? Catherine Houssa clarifies the main takeaways of this major step forward to (finally) boost crowdfunding in the EU.

Looking back

Without any doubt, it was crowdfunding that launched the Fintech movement. Crowdfunding facilitated access to funding for those who were excluded from the banking system via a digital platform, showing the possibility that finance could be done differently.

The Belgian legislator, like other national legislators, has taken up this new reality and transposed the requirements related to this new activity into Belgian law one step at a time (see our news published in 2016 on this subject here).

However, an inherently digital activity soon finds itself cramped when it is constrained within physical boundaries. The crowdfunding platform approved by the FSMA under the Belgian law of 18 December 2016 must limit its activities to the Belgian territory unless it meets the legal conditions applicable to crowdfunding platforms in each of the various European countries where it wishes to carry out its alternative funding activities.

After a certain enthusiasm, crowdfunding has therefore continued its national activities without going through the spectacular development one could have hoped for. One of the main reasons for this is, in particular, the lack of a European passport linked to national authorisation.

Harmonisation of participatory financing – a single European framework

From 10 November 2021 onwards, a crowdfunding platform will be able to obtain an authorisation entitling it to carry out its activities in all countries of the European Union.

On this date, Regulation (EU) 2020/1503 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 October 2020 on European crowdfunding service providers (ECSP) for business (the “Crowdfunding Regulation“) will become applicable.

By granting a European passport to ECSPs, the Crowdfunding Regulation makes it possible to overcome the barrier of fragmented national regulation. It undoubtedly creates a favourable environment for the emergence of new European crowdfunding players and facilitates the cross-border financing of small structures and startups. In other words, individual investors from different European countries will be able to participate in the financing of projects of companies established in other Member States.

Below, we provide a general overview of this new European regulation.

Scope of application

Actors

The project owner may be a natural person who is not a consumer. This is a first difference with the Belgian regulation which limits access to financing intermediated by platforms to legal entities. This will certainly raise questions regarding the Belgian regulation which does not allow the issuance of securities by natural persons.

On the other hand, ECSPs must be legal entities. This is also a difference from the Belgian regulation which also allows natural persons to offer alternative financing services, although it has to be acknowledged that, de facto, this possibility is not being used.

The Crowdfunding Regulation does not apply to participatory financing services provided to project owners who are consumers within the meaning of Directive 2008/48/EC, i.e. any natural person who acts for purposes not related to his commercial or professional activity.

This is a disappointment for peer-to-peer lending platforms which, provided that they are authorised to act as such by their national legislation, will have to pursue carrying out their activities exclusively within their national legal framework without benefiting from a European passport (for the lack of Belgian status of peer-to-peer lending, see our initial analysis of 2016 here).

Maximum amount collected

The Crowdfunding Regulation has opted to set a single collection threshold per project owner instead of per project. This threshold has been set at 5 million EUR over a 12-month period without the need to issue a prospectus.

This amount has been retained because this threshold is used by most Member States – as is the case in Belgium – to exempt the offers of securities to the public from the obligation to publish a prospectus. Moreover, this threshold is calculated to cover all offers made by the project owner, whether through ECSPs – in the form of loans or equity participations – or directly under the general exemptions provided for in the Prospectus Regulation.

Grant conditions

A European passport is something you have to earn! The Crowdfunding Regulation introduces extremely precise rules on transparency and investor protection. This Regulation also significantly strengthens the prudential and governance requirements with which platforms have to comply.

Investor protection and transparency

The process of a collection project always starts with the publication by the ECSPs of a Key Investment Information Sheet (KIIS) drawn up by the project owner. This document contains all the information listed in Annex I of the Crowdfunding Regulation, an exclusion of liability clause and a warning on the risks posed by the investment proposed by the platform. It must be kept up to date throughout the entire offer period. The ECSPs are closely involved. They are responsible for verifying the completeness, accuracy and clarity of the information contained in the KIIS. The KIIS must be published 7 days before the online publication of a project that coincides with the start of the collection.

The Crowdfunding Regulation also distinguishes sophisticated and non-sophisticated investors, who benefit from different levels of information and protection.

A non-sophisticated investor benefits from a higher level of information (more in-depth advice and guidance). He must take an appropriateness test to ensure that he understands the level of risk associated with a participatory investment, a test which should be renewed every two years. Unless the ECSP offers a discretionary loan portfolio management service, the non-sophisticated investor is given a withdrawal period of 4 days as from the day he makes an investment offer. If his investment exceeds 1,000 EUR per project or 5% of his assets, the ECSP is subject to additional obligations in terms of information and must obtain the explicit consent of the investor.

Prudential requirements

The Crowdfunding Regulation imposes many organisational and operational requirements on ECSPs. These include the obligation to put in place procedures to ensure the continuity of their activities. ECSPs must also ensure that they avoid any conflict of interest and, to this end, shall not participate in offers launched on their own platform, nor may their main shareholders, managers and employees act as a project owner of a project offered on the platform. When ECSPs engage in outsourcing, this must be documented and monitored at all times, with the ECSP remaining fully responsible for the outsourced activity. The custody of assets must comply with strict rules.

Evidence of compliance with these rules must be included in the application file submitted for approval to the supervisory authority of the Member State in which the applicant is established.

If the ECSP provides for payment services in relation to participatory financing services, the ECSP is logically obliged to obtain authorisation as a payment service provider within the meaning of Directive 2015/2366 (PSD II).

Gateway

Finally, it should be noted that the Crowdfunding Regulation offers crowdfunding platforms that have already been approved under their national legislation the ease of not having to provide again the information and documents they have already provided when applying for approval, on the condition, of course, that this information and these documents are up-to-date and available to the competent authority. Platforms which obtain the European passport will have to give up their initial national authorisation, while platforms which do not apply for the European passport will remain subject to their initial national authorisation.

The European authorisation as a provider of participatory finance services was long expected by the industry. Even if it imposes strict rules to ECSPs, this is a necessary evil to give them the credibility they need to finally access the “big league”.

Come and discuss this with our Digital Finance Team!

digitalfinance@simontbraun.eu
+32 (0)2 543 70 80

 

Simont Braun authors FinTech Belgian Chapter in The Legal 500

Have a look at the FinTech Belgian Chapter authored by Simont Braun in The Legal 500 Comparative Guide!

It’s a concise, pragmatic and yet comprehensive overview of FinTech in Belgium, and a must-read for all practitioners and actors of the sector.

The Belgian Chapter is available here.

Thank you, in particular, to Catherine Houssa, Philippe De Prez, Joan Carette, Thomas Derval, Jean-Christophe Vercauteren & Charlotte De Thaye for their work on this.

For any question or assistance, do not hesitate to reach out to Simont Braun’s Digital Finance Team: digitalfinance@simontbraun.eu

 

Simont Braun strengthens Financial Services and FinTech capabilities with top hires

Simont Braun boosts the capabilities of its Fintech and Financial Services practices by welcoming Partner Joan Carette and Senior Associate Jean-Christophe Vercauteren. These strong additions to the firm enhance our Digital Finance Team’s position on top of the Belgian market.

The highly respected Joan Carette joins our Fintech and Financial Services team as a partner next to Catherine Houssa and Philippe De Prez, where she will reinforce our regulation and FinTech skills and allow to improve our focus on the Tech aspect of our expertise.

Joan Carette has 20 years of experience in FinTech, payments, e-money, AML and more generally banking and financial services and the prudential supervision of financial institutions. She worked as a regulator in the prudential supervision department of the FSMA, and in Belgian and international law firms for over 15 years.

Clients admire her “very flexible, pragmatic approach,” as well as her “deep knowledge of financial regulation.” (Chambers & Partners)

FinTech, Payments and Financial Services play key roles in our economy and require to combine strong legal knowledge with tech-savviness and proactivity. In this context, I am delighted to join the strongest Digital Finance Team on the Belgian legal market. Together, we will be able to offer the best possible guidance to our clients,” says Joan Carette.

Jean-Christophe Vercauteren has solid regulatory expertise in FinTech, payment services and e-money, AML and more generally banking and financial services. He gathered experience as a lawyer in Belgian and international business law firms, and as a legal counsel in a Belgian bank.

I could not think of a more stimulating environment than Simont Braun’s Digital Finance Team to further develop my expertise. Being part of the pioneer FinTech law firm in Belgium will be a daily motivation, and I am happy to contribute to broadening its capabilities,” says Jean-Christophe.

We are proud to welcome top talents like Joan and Jean-Christophe in the team. With them on board, our Digital Finance Team strengthens both its financial services and tech capabilities,” adds Philippe De Prez, partner in FinTech and Financial Services.

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Simont Braun’s pioneer Digital Finance Team is one of the best and most-qualified teams in Belgium. “The firm has proven itself as one of the very leading players in the market, having advised on groundbreaking projects involving areas such as alternative lending, micro-savings, robo-advisory, blockchain, ICOs and virtual currencies.” Simont Braun is the only law firm ranked in Band 1 in Belgium in FinTech by Chambers & Partners. The firm is also ranked Tier 1 in FinTech by the Legal 500, and Tier 1 in Financial Services Regulatory by IFLR 1000.

Simont Braun assists AION in building the new next generation Challenger Bank

Brussels, 10 March 2020  |  Simont Braun successfully assisted AION in building an entirely digital and mobile bank, making it the first of its kind next generation Challenger Bank in Belgium. AION has officially launched its services on 3 March 2020.

AION is the former Banca Monte Pasci Belgio and was purchased by the American fund Warburg Pincus in 2018 in order to transform it into a fully digital financial services provider. AION offers an unrivalled broad spectrum of financial products and services, and beyond banking services, benefitting from an impressive technology and IT support.

Simont Braun’s team has been involved for over a year in developing the new digital products and services in close and successful collaboration with AION’s team,” comments Philippe De Prez, Partner at Simont Braun in Digital Finance and Financial services. “We had the pleasure to collaborate with a very motivated and talented group of people at AION, all working towards an ambitious goal. It has been an intense ride during which we often explored innovative solutions which were so far not available on the Belgian market. This is a space where our team is at its very best. We would like to sincerely thank our clients for this great opportunity to both assist and learn.”

Simont Braun’s Digital Finance Team advised AION on the compliance of their services and products with the applicable regulation, was involved in numerous contract drafting, screen-by-screen compliance analysis and negotiations with the regulator.

The Simont Braun team was led by partner Philippe De Prez, with the assistance of partners Catherine Houssa and Axel Maeterlinck, counsel Thomas Derval, and associates Sander Van Loock, Charlotte De Thaye, Amine Chafik and David-Alexandre Sauvage.

For any question, please contact Nelly Chammas (Marketing & Communication Manager).

Insurance – National Bank of Belgium published the Multilateral Memorandum of Understanding on supervisory cooperation and exchange of information

Recognising the need and the benefit of mutual assistance in ongoing supervision and on-site inspections and in the exchange of information concerning (re)insurance undertakings with cross-border establishments in the UK and the EEA, the UK authorities and EEA authorities responsible for the supervision of the insurance industry have agreed on the establishment of cooperation agreements between the UK authorities and each single EEA authority, subject to the Multilateral Memorandum of Understanding (MMoU).

The MMoU, being a statement of intent and hence not legally binding on the signatory UK authorities and EEA authorities, serves to establish a formal basis for co-operation between the UK authorities, on the one hand, and each single EEA authority, on the other hand. The MMoU is therefore not intended to create commitments for the UK Authorities in relation to each other, nor for the EEA Authorities in relation to each other. The supervisory cooperation includes the exchange of supervisory information (where permitted or not prevented under applicable law) and supervisory assistance in order to ensure adequate levels of policyholder protection and to promote the prudential soundness of the insurance industry and the financial stability in their respective countries.

Although it does not create directly or indirectly any legally enforceable rights or obligations for the signatory authorities or third parties, this MMoU shows the intent to safeguard prudential supervision of (re)insurance undertakings with cross-border establishments in the UK and the EEA after the finalisation of the Brexit. This ensures that the prudential supervision of those undertakings does not merely fall back on the regime for supervision regarding (re)insurance undertakings established in or with cross-border establishments in third countries as is provided by the Law of 13 March 2016 on the status and supervision of insurance or reinsurance undertakings. Also, this memorandum and the cooperation agreements that will normally follow may have an impact with regard to supervisory activities on outsourcing arrangements between such (re)insurance companies and undertakings in third countries.

The MMoU enters into force on the date the European Treaties and EU secondary legislation have ceased to apply in the UK. To view or read the MMoU in full, please click here.

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For any question, please contact Thomas Derval or Charlotte De Thaye

 

Our Digital Finance Team interviewed on the latest FinTech Trends

Catherine Houssa, Partner in our Digital Finance Team, was interviewed on the latest FinTech trends by La Libre Belgique in a special edition dedicated to the take-off of tech in Brussels.

An opportunity to also highlight the advantages of Brussels as a set-up point for FinTechs willing to reach all of Europe.

The full article is available here.

Our Digital Finance Team has authored the Belgian chapter of Chambers’ FinTech Global Guide 2019

Our Digital Finance Team has authored the Belgian chapter of the FinTech Global Guide 2019 released by Chambers & Partners, providing practical insight on key FinTech topics, such as Payments, Open Banking, Robo-advisory and InsurTech. The guide is available here: http://bit.ly/2UfuBxy

 

Our Digital Finance Team hosted the Vlerick FinTech Bootcamp

Yesterday, Simont Braun’s Digital Finance Team hosted the Vlerick FinTech Bootcamp. Philippe De Prez highlighted the impact of regulation on FinTech ventures and the students had the chance to hear 8 FinTechs pitching: Ibanity, DigiTribe, Accountable, POM, Itsme Belgian Mobile ID, 0smosis and GAMBIT.

Thank you to Bjorn Cumps from Vlerick Business School and FinTech Belgium for their trust.